Publicatie

Publication date

The epidemiology and severity of respiratory viral infections in atropical country: Ecuador, 2009–2016.

Caini, S., Mora, D. de, Olmedo, M., Portugal, D., Becerra, M.A., Mejía, M., Pacurucu, M.C., Ojeda, J., Bonaccorsi, G., Lorini, C., Paget, J., Bruno, A. The epidemiology and severity of respiratory viral infections in atropical country: Ecuador, 2009–2016. Journal of Infection and Public Health: 2019, 12(3), 357-363
Read online
Background
Respiratory viral infections (RVI) are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. We compared the epidemiology and severity of RVI in Ecuador during 2009–2016.

Methods
Respiratory specimens collected within the national surveillance system were tested for influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, parainfluenza virus, and human metap-neumovirus. Overall and virus-specific positive detection rate (PDR) were calculated and compared the timing of epidemics caused by the different viruses. Logistic regression models were used to compare the age distribution and risk of death across respiratory viruses.

Results
A total of 41,172 specimens were analyzed: influenza (PDR = 14.3%) and respiratory syncytialvirus (RSV) (PDR = 9.5%) were the most frequently detected viruses. Influenza epidemics typically peaked in December–January and RSV epidemics in March; seasonality was less evident for the other viruses. Compared to adults, children were more frequently infected with RSV, adenovirus, parainfluenza, andinfluenza B, while the elderly were less frequently infected with influenza A(H1N1)p. The age-adjusted risk of death was highest for A(H1N1)p (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.38–2.17),and lowest for RSV (OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.57–0.98).

Conclusions
Whilst influenza and RSV were the most frequently detected pathogens, the risk of eath differed by RVI, being highest for pandemic influenza and lowest for RSV.