Project
Completed
2016

ARNA: Antimicrobial resistance and causes of non-prudent use of antibiotics in human medicine, 2014-2016

Duration: Apr 2014 - Mar 2016

Background
Non-prudent antibiotic use is a major risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. Self-medication is one part of non-prudent use. Some countries in the European Union (EU) do have a substantial level of non-prescription use of antibiotics, while others do not have this type of consumption at all.

Aim
The ARNA-project aims to contribute to a more prudent use of antibiotics in human medicine, with a specific focus on the use of non-prescribed antibiotics.
The overall aim is to map the non-prudent use of antibiotics in the EU and to encourage policies that lead to a more prudent use of antibiotics.

Therefore in the ARNA project we will:
- Identify key factors that drive the sales and non-prudent use of antibiotics in human medicine obtained without prescription
- Assess the level of enforcement of legal prescriptions of antimicrobial agents in the EU
- Document good practices aimed at strengthening a more prudent use of antibiotics
- Develop policy options for a more prudent use of antibiotics

Methods
1. Analysis of literature and existing data on the consumption of antimicrobial agents across the EU.
2. National surveys in EU Member States to measure self-medication with antimicrobial agents.
3. In-depth analysis of self-medication with antimicrobial agents in five countries with the highest level of self-medication to further unravel the frequency and nature of non-prudent use.
4. Analysis of key factors in the health care system explaining cross-national variation including legal provisions and national measures taken by countries.
5. Identification of best practices.
6. Formulating a set of policy options for EU Member Statesa to promote prudent use of antimicrobial agents.
7. National workshops in the five countries with the highest level of self-medication and a final consensus conference.

Results
The ARNA project will result in recommendations for the EU and its Member States to take action to enhance the prudent use of antibiotics, especially in order to reduce self-medication. ARNA delivers its results in three ways:
1. dissemination of knowledge among policy makers
2. recommendations for actions at the national and European level to enhance prudent use of antimicrobial agents
3. scientific publications.
Funding
European Comm​ission - DG Health and Consumers
Project partners
TNS NIPO (Dutch opinion research company), Netherlandse; University of Antwerp, Belgium