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Continuing pain education in nursing: a literature review.

Francke, A.L., Garssen, B., Huijer Abu-Saad, H. Continuing pain education in nursing: a literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies: 1996, 33(5), 567-578
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Twelve studies on the effects of pain programmes for nurses were reviewed. Most of the programmes focused on aspects of pain, pain medication or pain assessment. Only two programmes (Ferrell et al., 1993, J. Pain Symptom Management, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 549-556; Sofaer, 1983, Nurs. Times, Vol. 79, No. 47, pp. 38-42; 1984, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh) also paid attention to non-pharmacological nursing interventions. Randomized control groups, established measurement instruments, testing statistics, and long-term follow-up measurements, were not often used in the effect evaluation of the programmes. Effects reported on both nurses and patients were for the most part positive. Given the small number of studies and their methodological limitations, further research into the effectiveness of continuing pain education in nursing is indicated.(aut. ref.)