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Patient Experience Monitor (PEM): the development of new short-form Picker experience questionnaires for hospital patients with a wide range of literacy levels.

Bastemeijer, C.M., Boosman, H., Zandbelt, L., Timman, R., Boer, D. de, Hazelzet, J.A. Patient Experience Monitor (PEM): the development of new short-form Picker experience questionnaires for hospital patients with a wide range of literacy levels. Patient Related Outcome Measures: 2020, 11, 221-230
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Purpose
Several patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) were developed through the years. These questionnaires are frequently found to be inappropriate for people with lower literacy levels. This paper describes the development of patient experience questionnaires for hospital patients with a wide range of literacy levels, while enabling the potential for quality improvement.

Methods
Mixed methods were used to adapt Picker Institute patient experience questionnaires: selection of items and adaptation towards language level B1 (the language level of which patients can express their own opinion and describe experiences, events and expectations) by expert panels, usability tests with patients, analysis of psychometric properties and member checking. A theory-driven approach was followed for definitive enrolment of items, meaning that the items eligible for exclusion had been carefully reviewed by the expert team and representatives of a patient council before definitive exclusion.

Results
A pilot study was performed in an University Medical Centre in the Netherlands among in- and outpatients after discharge. Two provisional questionnaires of 22 items, designed by an expert panel, were reduced towards a final selection of 14– 15 items. This led to two short-form questionnaires, called Patient Experience Monitor (PEM) Adult Inpatient and PEM Adult Outpatient. To illustrate, the results of the PEM Adult Outpatient questionnaire are presented.

Conclusion
PEMs are short and valid questionnaires specifically developed to measure patient experiences of hospital patients with a wide range of literacy levels. Acceptance of the questionnaires for both lower and higher educated patients are confirmed by usability tests. The respondents of the pilot study represent both groups. The developed questionnaires should be seen as a dynamic entity and part of a continuous effort to evaluate and improve patient experiences. Future studies are needed to examine the usability of these new questionnaires for quality improvement.