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Talking in triads: communication with Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the palliative phase of cancer.

Graaff, F.M. de, Francke, A.L., Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den, Geest, S. van der. Talking in triads: communication with Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the palliative phase of cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing: 2012, 21(21-22), 3143-3152
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Aims and objectives: To gain insight into the factors that influence communication between health professionals and Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the palliative phase of cancer. Background:
In palliative care, communication is crucial. The question, however, is whether Dutch healthcare providers, on the one hand, and Turkish and Moroccan patients and their family members, on the other, agree on what is constituted by good communication. Design: A descriptive qualitative method is used. Methods: Data of semi-structured interviews with 83 persons (six patients, 30 relatives and 47 professional care providers) were analysed to determine perceptual communication differences about care and treatment during the palliative phase of 33 cases. Results: As many patients with a Turkish or Moroccan background speak little Dutch, conversations often take place in triads, which makes it difficult for the actors to understand and resolve communication problems arising from diverging perceptions of ‘good communication’. Conclusion: Miscommunication around palliative care cannot solely be explained by the different cultural backgrounds of patients and their care providers. The multilingual communication triangle of patient – family – care provider often also complicates the bridging of differences in care perceptions. Relevance to clinical practice: Professional care providers should develop adequate strategies to handle triads, explore their own conventions and those of patients and relatives. (aut.ref.)