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Developing a toolkit for patients with COPD or chronic heart failure and their informal caregivers to improve person-centredness in conversations with healthcare professionals: a Deign Thinking approach.

Olde Wolsink-van Harlingen, A., Groen-van de Ven, L., Hasselaar, J., Thalen, J., Jukema, J., Vissers, K., Uitdehaag, M. Developing a toolkit for patients with COPD or chronic heart failure and their informal caregivers to improve person-centredness in conversations with healthcare professionals: a Deign Thinking approach. Patient Education and Counseling: 2022
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Background
The perspective of patients and informal caregivers is often not expressed in conversations with healthcare professionals which can have a negative impact on quality of care and quality of life.

Objective
Describe the development of a toolkit for patients with COPD or chronic heart failure and their informal caregivers enabling them to explore and express their perspective in conversations with healthcare professionals. Patient involvement: Patients, informal caregivers and healthcare professionals were involved in the design process from problem definition to solution development.

Method
Design Thinking Approach using eight co-creation sessions and qualitative data-collection methods. Nineteen patients, ten informal caregivers and thirteen healthcare professionals participated in one or more co-creation sessions. Homogenous subgroups of participants were used in session 1, 2 and 4 and mixed groups were used in session 3, 5 and 6. Session 7 and 8 were used to test prototype toolkits.

Results
Three challenges to expressing the personal perspective to healthcare professionals, four statements defining the desired situation for conversations, eleven design criteria for the toolkit and ten selection criteria for tools were identified. This information was used to develop a prototype toolkit.

Discussion
Most patients and informal caregivers had moderate to high levels of education and all participating healthcare professionals were female with a majority of nurses and only three physicians. It is possible that this has influenced the design of the toolkit.

Practical value
The toolkit can support patients and informal caregivers in exploring and expressing their perspective in conversations with healthcare professionals. Feasibility of the toolkit and implications for healthcare professionals will be examined in a pilot implementation study.