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The importance of gender-stratified antibiotic resistance surveillance of unselected uropathogens: a Dutch nationwide extramural surveillance study.

Heijer, C.D.J. den, Penders, J., Donker, G.A., Bruggeman, C.A., Stobberingh, E.E. The importance of gender-stratified antibiotic resistance surveillance of unselected uropathogens: a Dutch nationwide extramural surveillance study. PLoS One: 2013, 8(3), e60497
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Few studies have been performed on urinary tract infections (UTIs) in men. In the present study, general practitioners (n = 42) from the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network collected urinary samples from 560 male patients (≥18 years) suspected of UTI and recorded prescribed antibiotic treatment. In this way, the antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negative uropathogens, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli could be determined. In addition, E. coli susceptibility and antibiotic prescriptions were compared with data from a similar UTI study among women and with data collected 7 years earlier. Of 367 uropathogens (66%) identified (≥103 cfu/mL), most were Gram-negative (83%) and E. coli being isolated most frequently (51%). Antibiotic susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nitrofurantoin was 94%, 92% and 88%, respectively, whereas co-amoxiclav (76%) and co-trimoxazole (80%) showed lower susceptibilities. One ESBL (0.5%) was found. A significantly higher proportion of female UTIs was caused by E. coli compared with men (72% versus 51%, P<0.05). E. coli susceptibility tended to be lower in men compared with women, although not reaching statistical significance. No changes in E. coli susceptibility were observed over time (all P>0.05). Co-amoxiclav and nitrofurantoin prescriptions increased over time (11% versus 28% and 16% versus 23% respectively, both P<0.05), whereas co-trimoxazole prescriptions decreased (24% versus 14%, P<0.05). In conclusion, given the observed gender differences in uropathogen distribution and (tendency in) E. coli antibiotic susceptibility, empirical male UTI treatment options should be based on surveillance studies including men only. When awaiting the culture result is clinically not possible, fluoroquinolones are advised as first-choice antibiotics for male UTIs in Dutch general practices based on current antibiotic susceptibility data. The prevalence of ESBL-producers was low and no differences were observed in antibiotic susceptibility over a 7-year period. In addition, antibiotic prescriptions changed in accordance with national guidelines during this time period. (aut.ref.)
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