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Utrecht pediatric wheelchair mobility skills test: reliability, validity, and responsiveness in youths using a manual wheelchair.

Sol, M.E., Groot, J.F. de, Zwinkels, M., Kruitwagen, C.L., Vershuren, O. Utrecht pediatric wheelchair mobility skills test: reliability, validity, and responsiveness in youths using a manual wheelchair. Physical Therapy: 2019(8), 1098-1106
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Background
The assessment of wheelchair mobility skills (WMS) in youths using a manual wheelchair is important. More information is needed regarding the psychometric properties of the newly developed Utrecht Pediatric Wheelchair Mobility Skills Test (UP-WMST).

Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability, content validity, construct validity, and responsiveness of the UP-WMST 2.0 in youths using a manual wheelchair.

Design
This was a repeated-measurements, cross-sectional study.

Methods
A total of 117 children and adolescents who use a manual wheelchair participated in this study. The UP-WMST 2.0 contains the same 15 WMS items as the original UP-WMST but has an adaptation of the scoring method. Test-retest reliability was estimated in 30 participants. Content validity was assessed through floor and ceiling effect analyses. Construct validity was assessed through hypothesis testing. Preliminary estimates of responsiveness were assessed in 23 participants who participated in a WMS training program.

Results
Test-retest reliability analysis showed weighted Cohen kappa coefficients ranging from 0.63 to 0.98 for all but 1 item. The total UP-WMST 2.0 score had an ICC of 0.97. No floor or ceiling effects were detected. Independent-sample t test analysis confirmed our hypotheses regarding direction and difference in scores between age and diagnostic groups. Within-group analysis in the responsiveness study showed a positive significant change in UP-WMST 2.0 score (8.3 points).

Limitations
The small sample size used in the responsiveness study was a limitation of this study.

Conclusions
This study provided evidence of the test-retest reliability, content, and construct validity of the UP-WMST 2.0. It also provided initial evidence of the responsiveness of the UP-WMST 2.0 for measuring change in WMS in youths using a manual wheelchair.