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Root cause analysis using the Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis Method in healthcare facilities: a systematic literature review.

Driesen, B.E.J.M., Baartmans, M., Merten, H., Otten, R., Walker, C., Nanayakkara, P.W.B., Wagner, C. Root cause analysis using the Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis Method in healthcare facilities: a systematic literature review. Journal of Patient Safety: 2022, 18(4), p. 342-350
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Objectives
Unintended events (UEs) are prevalent in healthcare facilities, and learning from them is key to improve patient safety. The Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis (PRISMA)-method is a root cause analysis method used in healthcare facilities. The aims of this systematic review are to map the use of the PRISMA-method in healthcare facilities worldwide, to assess the insights that the PRISMA-method offers, and to propose recommendations to increase its usability in healthcare facilities.

Methods
PubMed, EMBASE.com, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were systematically searched from inception to February 26, 2020. Studies were included if the PRISMA-method for analyzing UEs was applied in healthcare facilities. A quality appraisal was performed, and relevant data based on an appraisal checklist were extracted.

Results
The search provided 2773 references, of which 25 articles reporting 10,816 UEs met our inclusion criteria. The most frequently identified root causes were human-related, followed by organizational factors. Most studies took place in the Netherlands (n = 20), and the sample size ranged from 1 to 2028 UEs. The study setting and collected data used for PRISMA varied widely. The PRISMA-method performed by multiple persons resulted in more root causes per event.

Conclusions
To better understand UEs in healthcare facilities and formulate optimal countermeasures, our recommendations to further improve the PRISMA-method mainly focus on combining information from patient files and reports with interviews, including multiple PRISMA-trained researchers in an analysis, and modify the Eindhoven Classification Model if needed.